Test of Reasoning Ability is mostly one of the main subjects in the government exams. like NRA CET, SSC CGL, RRBs, NABARD, Banking etc. You will find here the best course content in Reasoning Part – 3. You will find the content very much useful, and shall be able to easily score high marks in this section. In competitive exams, Test of Reasoning is among the four main sections like English LanguageQuantitative Aptitude, and General Knowledge Tests.

## Reasoning Part – 3 to Ensure Your Success

### PROBLEMS BASED ON SERIES COMPLETION

DIRECTION: In each of the series given below, one number is wrong. Find it out.

1.            3, 4, 10, 32, 136, 685, 4116

2.            2, 4, 24, 48, 240, 1440, 10080

3.            13, 21, 32, 40, 59, 69, 94

4.            7, 14, 56, 168, 336, 1344, 2688

5.            3, 8, 15, 24, 36

6.            12, 18, 27, 90, 270, 945, 3780

7.            1, 2, 1, 2, 4, 4, 3, 6, 9, 4, 8, 15

8.            1, 1, 2, 6, 24, 118, 720

9.            7, 15, 8, 17, 9, 19, 10, 20

10.          29, 35, 30, 34, 35, 33, 32

11.          102, 153, 104, 156, 105, 159

12.          8, 6, 11, 5, 14, 4, 16

13.          54, 53, 50, 46, 38, 29, 18

14.          5, 13, 29, 61, 125, 250

15.          85, 70, 50, 25, -10, -40

16.          57, 51, 39, 33, 21, 12, 3

17.          2.1, 5.2, 8.4, 11.7, 15.1,18.4

18.          2, 5, 10, 17, 26, 37, 50, 64

19.          16, 8, 9, 6, 4, 5, 1, 2

20.          39, 56, 75, 96, 119, 140

21.          54, 53, 50, 46, 38, 29, 18

22.          21, 24, 30, 42, 51, 66

23.          131, 231, 241, 242, 244

24.          1,1,2, 8, 24, 120, 720

25.          2, 3, 6, 4, 5, 20, 6, 7, 43

26.          501, 402, 303, 205, 105

27.          7, 6, 14, 26, 42, 62, 86, 112, 146

28.          3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 25, 32, 48, 64

29.          3, 1, 2, 7, 3, 6, 13, 5, 12, 22, 7, 20, 31

30.          23, 47, 94, 191

31.          2, 4, 3, 9, 6, 25

32.          9, 15, 21, 26, 33

33.          7, 11, 12, 17, 19

34.          3, 8, 15, 25, 35

35.          25, 5, 16, 4, 9, 1, 3, 4, 2

36.          2, 4, 3, 9, 8, 65, 63, 39, 69

37.          8, 18, 32, 53, 78

38.          0, 1, 5, 11, 12, 20, 21, 27, 32, 32

39.          2.5, 12.5, 62.5, 312.5, 1562.4, 7812.5

40.          1, 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 20, 29

41.          2, 4, 6, 10, 16, 25, 42, 68, 110, 178

42.          7, 6, 13, 42, 6, 5, 11, 30, 5, 4, 8, 20

43.          37, 38, 42, 51, 90, 128

44.          500, 400, 319, 255, 170, 145, 130

45.          15, 24, 35, 48 62, 80, 99

46.          1513, 1414, 1315, 1216, 1116

Solution : To Obtain Next Term in the Series

1.            Replace 32 by 33               ( First term  + 1 ) X 1 = Second term

( Second term  + 1 )  X 2 =  third term (third term  + 1 ) X 3 = fourth term

2.           Replace 24 by 12                Multiply by 2,3, 4, 5…………………….

3.            Replace 69 by 67               Add 8, 11, 8, 19, 8,27 ………………

4.            Replace 2688 by 4032     Multiply by 2, 4, 3, 2 4, 3 …………..

5.            Replace 36 by 35               Add 5, 7, 9, 11 ……………………….

6.            Replace 27 by 36               Multiply by 1, 5, 2, 2.5,3 ………..

7.            Replace 15 by 16               One number is doubled and the other is its square

8.            Replace 118 by 120          Multiply by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5……………………

9.            Replace 20 by 21               There are two series : 7,8,9,10 and 15, 17 , 19 , 21

10.          Replace 35 by 31               There are two series : 29, 30, 31, 32, and 35, 34, 33.

11.          Replace 105 by 106          There are two series : 102, 104, 106, and 153, 156, 159.

12.          Replace 16 by 17               There are two series : 8, 11, 14, 17, and  6, 5, 4

13.          Replace 46 by 45.             Subtract 1, 3, 5, 7 ……………

14.          Replace 250 by 253.         Add 8, 16, 32 ………………….

( or Multiply by 2 and add 3 ) .

15.          Replace -10 by -5.            Subtract 15, 20, 25, 30 …………

16.          Replace 12 by 15               Subtract by 6, 12, 6, 12 …………..

17.          Replace 18.4 by 18.6       Add 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 …………………….

18.          Replace 64 by 65               Add 3, 5, 7, 9, 11…………………

19.          Replace 5 by 4                   4², 4×2, 3², 3×2, 2², 2×2 ………..

20.          Replace 140 by 144          13×3, 14×4,15×5, 16×6 ………………

(or + 17, +19, +21, +23, + 25…………)

21.         Replace 46 by 45                Subtract by 1, 3, 5, 7 ………………….

22.          Replace 42 by 39               Add 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 ……………….

23.          Replace 244 by 342          One is added to each number by turn.

24.          Replace 8 by 6                   1X1 = 1, 1X2 = 2, 2X3 = 6, 6X4 =   24………..

25.          Replace 43 by 42               2×3 = 6, 4×5 = 20, 6×7 = 42

26.          Replace 205 by 204          1 is subtracted from the first digit & added to the last

27.          Replace 112 by 114          Add 4, 8, 12, 16 ……………………….

28.          Replace 25 by 24               There are two series :    3, 6, 12 and 4, 8, 16, 32

29.          Replace 22 by 21               There are three series :

(i) 3, 7, 13, 21 having difference of 4, 6, 8, 10…………….

(ii)   2, 6, 12, 12

30.          Replace 94 by 95               Multiply by 2 and add 1

(23×2+1 = 47)……………

31.          Replace 6 by 5                   Squares of 2, 3, 4, 5 ……………….

32.          Replace 26 by 27               Add 6

33.          Replace 12 by 13               Add 4, 2, 4, 2, ……………….

34.          Replace 25 by 24               Add 5, 7, 9, 11 ……………..

35.          Replace 1 by 3                   5² = 25, 4² = 16, 3² = 9

36.          Replace 63 by 64              2×2 = 4, 4-1 = 3, 3×3 = 9, 9-1 = 8 8×8 = 64, 64-1= 63 …………..

37.          Replace 31 by 33               Add 10, 15, 20 25 ……….

38.          Replace 1 by 0.                  There are two series :    0, 5, 12, 21, 32, and 0, 11, 20, 27, 32

39.          Replace 1562.4 by 1562.5        Multiply by 5.

40.          Replace 20 by 22               Add 0, 1, 2, 3……….

41.          Replace 25 by 26               2+4 =6, 6+4 = 10, 10+6 = 16………………..

42.          Replace 8 by 9                   7+6 = 13, 7×6 = 42, 6+5= 11, 6×5 = 30

43.          Replace 90 by 92               Add 1², 2², 3², ………………

44.          Replace 130 by 129          Subtract 10², 9², 8², 7² …………….

45.          Replace 62 by 63.             Add 9, 11,13, 15, 17 ……………..

46.          Replace 1116 by 1117     One is added to the last two digits of every term and subtracted from the last two digits

### PROBLEMS BASED ON INFERENCE OF PASSAGE

SET : A 1

Below are given some passages followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the respective passages. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

(A)          the inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e. it properly follows from the statement of facts given.

(B)          the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’, in the light of the facts given.

(C)          the data are inadequate, i.e. from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.

(D)          the inference is ‘probably false’ though not ‘definitely false’ in the light of the facts given.

(E)          the inference is definitely false, i.e. it can not possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.

Q.1. It has been a frequent criticism of the post-war development plans of many under-developed countries that they concentrated on industrial development on a broad front to the neglect of agricultural development  and that they concentrated on developing substitutes for imports, even when this involved a very wasteful use of resources, to the neglect of developing exports.

(i)  Agricultural development got priority over industrial development in the under-developed countries.

(ii) Developing countries waste their scarce resources on developing import substitute.

(iii) Developing countries did not wish to pay enough attention towards developing exports.

(iv) Underdeveloped countries made less progress after the war than they made before the war.

(v) Underdeveloped countries cannot achieve their goals of speedy progress unless they take up a program of massive industrialization.

Q.2. Gujarat has hardly 8.5% of its total area under forest of this a considerable portion is covered by wild grass and marshes. Denuded of thick forests, fauna have disappeared from many places. Mandvi, for instance, had its share of panthers once. The state Government has imposed a total ban on cutting of trees for five years from this year. The imminent destruction of over 40,000 hectares of forest land by the Narmada project has led to nation wide strong protest.

(i) Gujarat is the first state in India to impose a total ban on cutting of trees.

(ii) There is thick forest in 8.5% of the total area of Gujarat.

(iii) People in Gujarat are quite conscious of the need of conservation of forests.

(iv) Once there was thick forest in Mandvi.

(v) A dam on the Narmada river is planned.

Q.3. It is thought by scientists that the banana first grew in Southern Asian and that through many centuries it spread in almost all tropical regions. The remarkable food value of bananas has been recognized only recently. When they are completely ripped or cooked, few food are more digestible and it has been discovered that they are also useful in treating certain diseases.

(i) Only cooking makes banana easy to digest.

(ii) Earlier, banana was not known for its nutritive value.

(iii) Banana grows only in tropical regions.

(iv) Banana has a medicinal quality also.

(v) Banana is the cheapest food available.

Q.4. Through autopsy, medicine also learns just how effective new weapons are against the disease. There is no way to find out exactly what a drug is doing to the body until tissues can be microscopically examined. Tests in laboratory on animals help, but in most cases they don’t fully apply to humans.

(i) Drugs affect tissues.

(ii) Without autopsy nothing can be known about the way a drug is affecting the body.

(iii) Autopsy is a process for getting human tissues for examination.

(iv) New drugs are usually tested on animals before administering them to human beings.

(v) Effect of drugs on animals and that on human being is similar in many cases.

Q.5.  Education in our country is so expensive that it is the luxury of the rich. It closes the door for the really deserving students. Universities and Colleges have become beehives of such students, as seek admission for the sake of amusement rather than instruction. They are there to have a good time and get, if at all, the certificate or diploma which comes their way.

(i) Education makes a man wise.

(ii) Education makes a man capable of earning his livelihood.

(iii) One can have a good time at college.

(iv) Literate persons can demand their pound of flesh forcefully.

(v) Deserving candidates seldom find their way to Universities or Colleges.

Q.6.  We do not claim that democracy is a flawless system but, it is also not a cut and dried formula which people can add and put into practice without training or discipline.

Democracy is a way of life, which has to be evolved and perfected by rigorous and conscientious efforts. It is essential that the individual is enlightened, responsible and vigilance. We have the eyes of the world focused on us.

The success of democracy in India is virtually the success of democracy as a way of life. This colossal experimentation must succeed if the people have to survive.

(i) Democracy is not the best form of Government.

(ii) Democracy without training or disciplining the people has got no meaning.

(iii) Success of democracy depends upon vigilant public.

(iv) Democracy is a golden way of life.

(v) Democracy cannot survive at least in India.

Q.7.  We are not expected to carry the memories of our misdeeds forever. Many adults still bear the burden of the unwanted memories of childhood and adolescence. These memories often steal more time and energy than they are worth – some are illusory, others are often insignificant and sometimes they weigh heavily on the mind simply because we never get the facts straight.

When we drag up bad memories and take a good look at them, they often turn out to be exaggerated and can be laid to rest.

(i)  Memories of some misdeeds of childhood make many adults feel guilty.

(ii) One can never get over the guilt felling about the misdeeds of one’s childhood and adolescence.

(iii) Few people make attempts to have an objective examination of the so-called misdeeds of their childhood or adolescence.

(iv) Almost every adult spends some time and energy on the memories of misdeeds done in the earlier part of the life.

(v) Children are severely punished for their misdeeds.

Q.8.  A dazzling emission of light has been detected in the proto planetary ring of Orion – the closest star to the solar system, reports Tass. Scientists believe that Orion – a large gas and dust cloud has the mass of the order of the Sun and a giant ring, like the one which surrounds the Saturn. According to them, the study of the orion’s big nebula will add to the knowledge about the origin of stars and their evolution.

(i) American scientists are studying Orion.

(ii) The Sun does not has a giant ring like Orion.

(iii) Scientists have little knowledge of the origin of stars.

(iv) The Sun is not as large as Orion.

(v) Orion is the closest star to the earth.

SET : A 1

Q 1.         (i) E.   In fact, as given in the passage, the under-developed countries neglected agricultural  development.

(ii) B.  The inference is partly true. The developing countries do make use of their scarce resources on developing import substitutes though it may seem to be wasteful as they don’t use it for developing exports.

(iii)  B.

(iv)  C. No such comparison has been made in the passage.

(v)   D. The inference has been frequently criticized in the passage.

Q 2. (i)   C.  Not given in the passage.

(ii)  D.  In fact, as given in the passage, a considerable portion of its area under forest is covered by wild , grass and marshes.

(iii) E.  The ban was imposed by the Government only because people in Gujarat were not conscious.

(iv)  B.  It can be ‘inferred’ as it is given that once there were panthers.

(v)   B. Narmada project is a planned one .

Q 3.

(i)  D.   Completely ripe banana is also easily digestible.

(ii)  A.  Nutritive value of banana has been recognized only recently.

(iii) B.  The inference though not given in the passage but it can be ‘derived’ that the spread of  cultivation of bananas to almost all tropical regions may be due to the fact stated in the conclusion.

(vi)  A.

(v)   B.  Nothing is said about the cost of banana in the passage.

Q 4.

(i)   B.

(ii)  E.  Tests in laboratory on animals also help up to some extent.

(iii) A.  It is given in the passage.

(iv) A.

(v) B.   It can be inferred, though not directly given in the passage.

Q 5.

(i)  C.  No such conclusion can be derived from the paragraph.

(ii) B.  The purpose of education seems to acquire a certificate or diploma so that one can become eligible for getting a job and earn one’s livelihood.

(iii) B. That is what the students think and do.

(iv) C. No such conclusion can be derived from the paragraph.

(v) A.  As education has become a luxury of the rich.

Q 6.

(i) D.  The passage shows that democracy is the best form of Government provided that people  are properly trained and disciplined.

(ii) A.

(iii) A.  A vigilant public is a prerequisite for the success of democracy.

(iv) C.  No such conclusion can be derived from the paragraph.

(v) C.   Explanation as above.

Q 7.

(i) A.

(ii) E.  Guilt feeling about the misdeeds of one’s childhood becomes illusory and often insignificant when we take good look at them.

(iii) A.

(v) C.   Not given in the passage.

Q 8.

(i) C.   The information concerning Orion has come from Tass i.e. a Russian News Agency – Therefore Americans may be / may not be studying Orion.

(ii) C.  Nothing is said about the ring of the sun.

(iii) D. The last line of the passage shows that they had some knowledge of the Origin of stars.

vi. E.       As stated in the paragraph, Orion has a mass of the order of Sun.

v. E.       The closest star to earth is Sun and not Orion.

## PROBLEMS BASED ON STATEMENT & CONCLUSION

SET : A2

DIRECTIONS :   In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered

(I) and (II). You have to assume everything in the statement to be true and consider both the conclusions together then decide which of the two given conclusions logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

A.  if only conclusion I follows; B.  if only conclusion II follows; C.  if either I or II follows; D.  if neither I nor II follows; E.  if both I and II follows.

Q.1.        A candidate appearing for P.O. examination has to put in a lot of hard work and approach the prescribed syllabus in a serious manner.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  There is no short-cut method for one who wants to be a P.O.

II.  Candidates for other examinations should also work hard.

Q.2.        Despite the mounting crisis, the target of reaching the Zero growth rate in population remains a distant dream particularly for all developing countries.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Zero population growth will never be reached by the developing countries.

II.  Developed countries have achieved it.

Q.3.        Majority of Indian electorate is illiterate.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Illiteracy among the masses has resulted in unfair elections.

II. The electorate is unable to elect good and clean leaders.

Q.4.        Last month, even premier issues in the Capital Market were not fully subscribed by public. The Government is also worried and wants to revive the confidence in the Capital Market.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Government financial institutions should subscribe if there is a shortfall in public subscription.

II.  Government should ask the companies to postpone the issue of public issues for public subscription until stability returns in the capital market.

Q.5.        A neurotic is a non-stupid person who behaves stupidly.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Neuroticism and stupidity go hand in hand.

II.  Normal person behaves intelligently

Q.6.        Any young man who makes dowry a condition for marriage discredits himself and dishonors womanhood.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Dowry system must be abolished.

II.  Those who do not take dowry respect womanhood.

Q.7.        Caste on its social side are a product of human organizations and not a mystery of divine appointment.

CONCLUSIONS :

II.  Divinity has created many mysteries in the world.

Q.8.        Constitutional morality is not a natural sentiment.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Sentiments are innate.

II.  Constitutional morality is to be cultivated.

Q.9.        Although the allegation that his house was raided by the Income tax authorities was strongly repudiated by him, people still talk about this matter in our town.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  His house was raided by Income-tax authorities (I.T.)

II.  His house was not raided by I.T.

Q.10.     The Company may relax the requirements regarding age and qualifications against this post at its sole discretion.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  The selected candidates may have the prescribed qualifications.

II.  The selected candidates may not have the prescribed qualifications.

Q.11.     Democracy is but election by the incompetent many for the appointment of the corrupt few.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Democracy aggravates corruption.

Q.12.     The election was marked by an unusually low turn-out of voters throughout the country.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  People had boycotted the elections.

II.  Voters have lost faith in elections.

Q.13.     Government will soon enact comprehensive legislation on industrial safety.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Industrial safety can’t be achieved without legislation.

II.  Government is not happy about the present industrial safety measures.

Q.14.     Education is in the ‘concurrent list’ and therefore, states are unable to reform the education quickly without the consent of the Central Government – an opinion.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  State and Central governments are not keen to reform education.

II.  Education should be an exclusively State subject if quick reforms are required.

Q.15.     The Supreme Court has held that it will be constitutionally invalid if school authorities make it compulsory for the children to sing the national anthem if they have genuine religious objection to it.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  School authorities should check the Constitutional validity of their major decisions.

II.  Schools cannot make it compulsory for the children to sing the national anthem.

Q.16.     There house is on the highway with a heavy traffic and they are facing a problem of noise pollution.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  People should build their houses away from highway.

II.  Traffic creates problems of environment pollution.

Q.17.     He stressed the need to scrap the descriptive type tests and their replacement by objective type tests which would measure the real merit of the student.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  It is important to measure the real merit of the student.

II.  The descriptive type tests do not measure the real merit of the student.

Q.18.     Since inequality is built in wherever there is development there is little that can be done to arrest it except at the cost of development itself.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  To achieve development, inequality should be allowed to continue.

II.  Equality and development do not go together.

Q.19.     After this amendment to the constitution, no child below the age of 14 years will be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Before this amendment to the Constitution, children below 14 years were employed to work in factory or mine.

II.  The employers must now abide by this amendment to the constitution.

Q.20.     The dissimilarities between the problem of rural and urban development stand out clearly when we compare the attitude of Government towards these two fields.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Government has more favorable attitude towards rural development than urban development.

II.  Government has more favorable attitude towards urban development than rural development.

Q.21.     Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the unquestioned leader of a third of the world was shown in the way the non-aligned turned to her in moments of crisis.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.   Countries other than the non-aligned did not turn to her in moments of crisis.

II.  The non-aligned accepted the leadership of Indira Gandhi.

Q.22.     The executive power of the State is vested in a Governor who is appointed by the President and who holds Office during the pleasure of the President.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  The President appoints the Governor.

II.  The Governor has the sole responsibility of conducting the state’s affairs.

Q.23.     The Present approach of International Labor Organization (ILO), the Minister said, was primarily directed to keep in view the interests of the workers in organized sector only which was not helpful to developing countries where a large number of workers were engaged in the unorganized sector.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  ILO should include interests of workers in unorganized sector in their approach  to  make it useful for developing countries.

II.  Developing countries are helpless as regards their workers in unorganized sectors.

Q.24.     Water supply in wards A to D of the city will be affected by about 25 per cent on Friday because repairing work of the main lines was to be carried out.

CONCLUSION :

I. The residents in these wards should economize on water on Friday.

II.  The residents in these wards should store water on the previous day.

Q.25.     Throughout the Third world, Women are generally more involved than men in food production, storage and marketing – FAO report.

CONCLUSION:

I.  Women more than men in the Third world should be trained in new methods for farming if agricultural production is to be increased there.

II.  Women always work very sincerely.

Q.26.     Water supply in wards A to D of the city will be affected by about 25 per cent on Friday because repairing work of main lines was to be carried out.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Such repairs should not in convince residents.

II.  Such announcements are useful to the residents.

Q.27.     In 1980, Bombay hosted the Asian Boxing Tournament, Indian Boxers were obliged to spend the night on the platform at the Bombay Central Station, whereas in 1983 the Indian Cricketers refused to play at Kolhapur because there is no five-star hotel there.

CONCLUSIONS:

I.  The Asian Boxing Tournament was poorly organized.

II.  Indian Boxers are not as skilled at boxing as the Indian Cricketers at cricket.

Q.28.     Bombay Doordarshan will telecast the first agency-produced and sponsored ghazals series featuring the country’s most popular ghazals from 12th November 1985’ – A news item.

CONCLUSIONS:

I.  Before this program, Bombay Doordarshan was not telecasting any ghazal programs.

II.  Earlier, no agency was willing to get its programs sponsored on Bombay Doordarshan.

Q.29.     When the Indian Cricket team returned from England after the world cup series, the entire Maharashtra cabinet was at the Wankhede stadium to applaud. The President and the Prime Minister spent considerable time with the team in Delhi.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  The Indian Government initially did not attach much importance to participation of  the Indian Cricketers in the World cup.

II. The Indian Cricket team get a rousing reception on their return to India.

Q.30.     Strikes are inherent right of the working men for the purpose of securing Justice.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Workers cannot get Justice unless they go on strike.

II.  Every working man must defend his inherent rights.

Q.31.     The Commission while examining cases of insurance in India found that the detailed terms and conditions of an insurance proposal were either not drawn up at all or delayed for several months. The result was that on receipt of a claim the interpretation of terms and conditions gave the Officers an opportunity to show either undue favor or to cause harassment to the party.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Officers of the Insurance companies should always interpret the terms and conditions of any claim favorably.

II.  A team of Officers of Insurance companies should be sent to one of the advanced countries to study the working of the Insurance companies there.

Q.32.     The radiation risks of nuclear power plants is barely one per cent of the total radiation we have to endure. 99 percent of the average does received by people working in industrial habitats is from sources other than nuclear energy power plants.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  Anti-nuclear lobby in the world protesting against nuclear plants should stop their protest marches.

II.  All nuclear power plants should be closed to avoid nuclear radiation risks.

Q.33.     The Commission while examining cases of Insurance in India found that the detailed terms and conditions of an Insurance proposal were either not drawn up at all or delayed for several months. The result was that on receipt of a claim the interpretation of terms and conditions gave the Officers an opportunity to show either undue favor or to cause harassment to the party.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  There is a need for revamping all the procedures of the insurance companies.

II.  Anybody wanting insurance should himself see that the terms and conditions of The  insurance are noted in detail.

Q.34.     The radiation risk of nuclear power plants is barely one per cent of the total radiation we have to endure. 99 percent of the average does received by people working in industrial habitats is from sources other than nuclear energy power plant.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  No industrial habitat should be allowed.

II.  By law all nuclear radiation should be stopped.

Q.35.     Recent researches have shown that pimples have their root cause within the liver.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  The medication for pimples should be administered to the live.

II.  Creams requiring external application are of no use.

Q.36.     From the available history, it is evident that in ancient India, both the teacher and the student valued not the quantity but the quality of education.

CONCLUSIONS :

I.  There was an agreement on educational values between teachers and students in ancient India.

II.  Quality of education is at a discount in modern India.

SET : A – 2

1.            A.   Only conclusion (I) is implicit, since in the statement nothing is said about ‘Other examination’.

2.            E.  Though the ‘Zero growth rate’ is a distant dream, yet it can be achieved in future. Nothing is said about the growth rate of developed countries.

3.            D.  In the statement nothing is said about either of the reasons. So we can’t reach at any particular conclusion.

4.            A.  Government financial institutions should subscribe to cover up the shortfall in public subscription so that public confidence can be revived in the capital market.

5.            A.  Nothing is said about the normal persons.

6.            D.  The Conclusion (I) is irrelevant and nowhere, in the statement, it is said that those who do  not take dowry respect womanhood.

7.            A.  In the statement, nowhere it is said that divinity has created mysteries.

8.            E.

9.            B.  He himself has denied the raid on his house.

10.          B.

11.          B.

12.          D.  Explanation as above in question no.3.

13.          B.  Only conclusion (II) follows from the statement.

14.          D.  The statement is only an opinion hence we can’t reach at any particular conclusion on the   basis of it.

15.          B.  Conclusion (I) is irrelevant.

16.          A.  Conclusion (II) is irrelevant as it is not the purpose of the statement.

17.          B.  Conclusion (I) is morerepetition of the statement.

18.          B.  Conclusion (I) is wrong as efforts can be made to arrest.

19.          E

20.          C.  On the basis of the statement only one of the two conclusions can be implicit.

21.          B.  Conclusion (I) is not implicit as in the statement nothing is said about countries other than Non – aligned.

22.          A.  Governor is vested only with the executive powers.

23.          A.

24.          E.

25.          A.  Since, according to the report, women are more involved in this particular profession than men so they must be trained in this particular field. Conclusion (II) is not implicit as men might  be involved in other occupations (like skilled work) seriously.

26.          B.  Conclusion (I) is irrelevant.

27.          A.  Boxers spent the night at platform goes to show that Asian Boxing Tournament was poorly organized. Refusal to play on the ground that there is no five star hotel is no yardstick of skill.

28.          D.  The statement simply implies that agency-produced programs were not telecast earlier.

29.          B.  The statement in no way implies that initially the government of India did not attach any importance to the participation of the Indian Cricketers in the World Cup.

30.          D.  Matters can be settled through peaceful ways. The conclusion (II) is senseless.

31.          D.  The author has simply discussed the lacunas in the working of Insurance companies.

32.          A.  There is no Justification for protests against nuclear plants as, according to the statement, radiation risk of nuclear power plants is barely one per cent of the total radiation.

33.          A.  There is a need for revamping the faulty insurance proposals. The Conclusion (II) is irrelevant.

34.          D.  Both the arguments are irrelevant with regard to the question.

35.          A.  The conclusion (II) is wrong as creams are good to cover up pimples externally.

36.          A.  There was unanimity in the view of teachers and students regarding valuation of education. In the statement, nothing is said about the quality of education in modern India.

### PROBLEMS BASED ON STATEMENT & ASSUMPTION

SET : A – 3

DIRECTIONS :     In each of the following questions, a statement is followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. Your task is to consider each statement and the assumptions that follow and decide which of the assumptions is implicit (i.e. supposed or taken for granted) in the statement.

A.      if only I is implicit ;                 B.     if only II is implicit ;                 C.      if either I or II is implicit ;

D.      if neither I nor II is implicit ;     E.     if both I and II are implicit.

Q.1. Ignorance is bliss.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Knowledge is power.

II. One should not learn anything.

Q.2. Kissing is good for health.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Free Kissing should be allowed.

II.  Kissing is a social evil.

Q.3. Farming is a prosperous business proposition.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I. Farming is liked by most people.

Q.4. In a world in a rush, Book Digest becomes indispensable.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  The only use of Book Digest is saving time.

II.  Book Digest should not be used when there is no rush.

Q.5. You can influence others with your thinking.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Thoughts can be transmitted.

II.  Influencing others is essential.

Q.6.  Statutory warning – “Cigarette smoking is injurious to health”.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I. The warning is helpful to society.

II.  Non-smoking promotes health.

Q.7. “Smoking prohibited” a notice in a railway compartment.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Generally people respect a notice.

II.  Smoking is injurious to health.

Q.8. This Ayurvedic tonic improves circulation, keeps your complexion in a glowing condition.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  People like a glowing complexion.

II.  Complexion becomes dull in the absence of circulation.

Q.9. “If you are beautiful, we will catch your beauty. If you are not, we will make you beautiful.” – An advertisement of a photo studio.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  A photograph can be beautiful even if a person is not.

II.  People like considered to be beautiful.

Q.10.  You don’t get to be on top overnight.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I. People desire to be on top.

II. Sustained  efforts are necessary to be on top.

Q.11. “If you are beautiful, we will catch your beauty. If you are not, we will make you beautiful.” – an advertisement of a photo studio.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I. “How to look beautiful” ? is a problem of youngsters.

II. Nobody desires to be beautiful.

Q.12.  “Smoking prohibited” a notice in a railway compartment.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Some persons like to smoke in the railway compartment.

II.  Some persons smoke in the railway compartment.

Q.13.  A friend in need is a friend indeed.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  A person needs help from others on certain occasions.

II.  A friend is expected to help when needed.

Q.14.  The spread of spirit and attitude of science in a traditional society is bound to be a slow process.

ASSUMPTIONS:

I.  Traditional societies tend to cling to their attitudes.

II.  Speed of spread of science depends on the type of society.

Q.15.  You really get your money’s worth when you buy from our shop .

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Other shops price goods above their worth.

II.  People want full value for their money.

Q.16.  A friend in need is a friend indeed.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Taking help from a friend is desirable.

II.  Relatives are of no help in difficult circumstances.

Q.17. Let us change the eligibility criteria to reduce the number of applicants.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  The present eligibility criteria are very low.

II.   Large number of applicants are not desirable.

Q.18. City belongs to you, keep it clean.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  It is the duty of the public to keep the city clean.

II.  People make the city dirty.

Q.19. The present communication system needs overhauling.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Changes result in improvement.

II.  The present communication system is outdated.

Q.20. The new education policy envisages major modifications in the education system.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Present education system is inconsistent with the national needs.

II.  Present education system needs change.

Q.21.  The P.M. said that the government can fight against communal forces only if it gets full support from the minority.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Communal elements hinder the growth of the nation.

II.  Minorities are serious in fighting against communal elements.

Q.22.  The only way to contain inflation is to promote industrial and agricultural production.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Industrial and agricultural production is low.

II.  Inflation is undesirable.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Finance is not a problem in export business.

II.  No one is interested in experts.

Q.24.  Our ancestors invested money in gold and real estate which they considered as investments providing the highest returns . We are investing money in our children’s education.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.   Investment in children’s education is a gamble.

II.  Our ancestors did not appreciate the value of education as we do.

Q.25.  Our films are full of sex and violence. So are popular magazines and books which are read by an increasing number of the young and growing people . Tackling these two causes of the present malaise in society will largely restore the previous social health.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Moral health of the society in the past was better than the present.

II.  Exposure of the young to sex and violence in the mass media cannot be controlled.

Q.26.  Indian agriculture needs improved varieties of seeds just as urgently as they need adequate supply of water for irrigation.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  The condition of Indian agriculture cannot be improved without adequate irrigation.

II.  The necessity of improved varieties of seeds in increasing production is still not realized by the Indian farmers.

Q.27.  To qualify in the examination you have to study hard.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Qualifying in the examination is desirable.

II.  Hard study leads to success.

Q.28.  The supply of fertilizers continues to be inadequate even after the introduction of new technology to manufacture it.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  The supply of fertilizers was adequate before the introduction of new technology.

II.  The supply of fertilizers was expected to increase after the introduction of new technology.

Q.29.  If you ask for speedier disposal, there would be lot of speed but no disposal.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Speed is an essential ingredient of efficiency.

II.  Ideal situation will have speed and disposal both together.

Q.30.  The need of our country at the present state of its development is to ensure administration through broad a consensus as may be attainable on every issue.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  The present system of administration in our country requires a change.

II.  Decisions taken by consensus are better decisions.

Q.31.  “Judge not according to appearance”.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Appearances are deceptive.

II.  Every one makes a judgment.

Q.32.  When in Madras stay at Hotel ‘X’ for comfort and good service, because my best friend has recommended it.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  My best friend is trustworthy.

II.  Comfort and good service cannot be expected from all hotels.

Q.33.  Like a fool, I decided to go by bus.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I. I am not a fool.

II. I am a fool.

Q.34.  Opening a reading room in Khabil will be a wastage.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Inhabitants of khabli are illiterate.

II.  Inhabitants of khabli are not interested in reading.

Q.35.  Every Judge must be committed to the constitution of the country. If he is not, he must be ousted from his office.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  It is possible to find out whether a judge is committed to the constitution of his country.

II.  A judge can be removed from office.

Q.36.  Do you want religious and political tolerance and an end to social conflicts which have gripped the society ? If so, then teach tolerance in schools and colleges.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Tolerance should be taught in schools and colleges so that the children and youth will practice tolerance.

II.  Teach tolerance to taught in school and college students and they will teach it to their parents.

Q.37.  With a view to achieving greater degree of coordination amongst various agencies involved in this program, the organizational set up should be strengthened to meet the requirements.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.   The present organizational set-up is not very appropriate in bringing about coordination.

II.   Change in organizational set-up will bring about desired coordination.

Q.38.  An advertisement – ‘Chocolate ‘X’ is a present for someone you love’.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.   People always give presents to the love ones.

II.  People are very fond of buying chocolate.

Q.39.  Request in a train compartment ‘Please do not keep your feet on the seats’.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.   People usually keep their feet on the seats.

II.   People do not know where to keep their feet.

Q.40.  The book is intended to guide the layman to study Yoga in absence of a teacher.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.   A teacher may not always be available to teach Yoga.

II.   Yoga can be studied from a book.

Q.41.  To stop train pull chain. Penalty for improper use Rs. 250 is a warning in a rain compartment.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.   Some persons are mischievous.

II.    On occasion people may want to stop a running train.

Q.42.  The concession in rail fares for the journey to hill station is cancelled because it is not needed for people who can spend their holidays there.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Railway should give concession only to needy persons.

II.  Railways should not encourage people to spend their holidays at hill station.

SET : A – 3

NOTE :  Assumptions are the facts on which an argument is based.

1.            B.  In the statement nothing is said about ‘knowledge’  and one should not learn anything as ignorance is bliss.

2.            A.  Free kissing should be allowed as, according to the statement it is good for health.

3.            E.  Farming, being a prosperous business, is liked by most people.

4.            D.  The main use of any book is improvement of knowledge of reader. Assumption (II) is senseless

5.            A.  The Statement has nothing to do with the second assumption.

6.            A.  In the statement, nothing is said about the advantages of non-smoking.

7.            D.  Both the assumptions are irrelevant as they have nothing to do with the purpose of the statement.

8.            E.  This advertisement regarding tonic is based on both the assumptions.

9.            E.  This advertisement of photo-studio is based on both the assumptions.

10.          B.  Only sustained efforts will put you on the top. Assumptions (I) is irrelevant.

11.          D.  In the statement nothing is said about the problem of any particular age group persons.

12.          E.            13.          E.            14.          B.

15.          E.  Both the assumptions are implicit.

16.          D.  In the statement, only the criterion of a true friend is highlighted.

17.          B.  Assumption (I) is a mere repetition of the statement and is not the purpose of the statement.

18. E.

19.          B.  Assumption (I) is irrelevant.

20.          E.  The question of modifications will arise only when change is required and the statement is made only after assuming the Ist assumption.

21.          A.  Assumption (II) is irrelevant and is a wrong interpretation of the statement.

22.          E.  Both the assumptions are implicit.

23.          D.  Finance is a problem in export business. The question of financing export business will arise only when finance is a problem in export and someone is interested in exports.

24.          B.  Our ancestors invested money in gold and real estate which they considered as investments providing the highest returns. They didn’t appreciate the value of education as we do.

25.          A.  Assumption (II) is wrong as the last sentence of the statement shows that it can be controlled  by tackling its causes.

26.          A.  The assumption (II) is irrelevant. Without adequate irrigation improved variety of seeds can’t  be of help.

27.          E.  Qualifying in the examination is desirable that is why the statement is made.

28.          B.

29.          D.  Lot of speed but no disposal implies that speed is not an essential ingredient of efficiency.

30.          B.

31.          A.  Assumption (II) is irrelevant.

32.          E.  One can accept advice only when the adviser is trust-worthy. All hotels can’t be expected to  provide comfort and good service.

33.          C.  A person may either be a fool or may not be a fool.

34.          C.  The opening of a reading room in khabli may not be justified due to one assumption or the   other.

35.          E.   The question of removing a judge from office will arise only when he can be removed and  when it is possible to find out whether he is committed to the constitution.

36.          A.   With a view to getting rid of social conflicts, tolerance must be taught in schools and colleges. Assumptions (II) is senseless.

37.          E.                            38.          D.                            39.          A.                            40.          E.

41.          E.                            42.          E.

### PROBLEMS BASED ON STATEMENT & ARGUMENT

SET : A – 4

DIRECTIONS :     In each of the following questions, one statement is followed by two arguments, one supporting it and the other against it. If only arguments (a) is strong, then mark A; if only argument (b) is strong, then mark B, if both the arguments (a) and (b) are strong then mark C ; if either (a) or (b) is strong, then mark D and if both (a) and (b) are weak, then mark E.

Q.1. STATEMENT :  A solution on population explosion must be found immediately.

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – because we do not have enough houses to provide shelter for all.

(b) No – because population resources are the richest wealth of a nation.

Q.2. STATEMENT :  Russia should have participated in the 1984 Olympics held at Los Angeles.

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – because politics should never interfere in sport.

(b) No – because Russia was genuinely concerned about the safety of its sportsman.

Q.3. STATEMENT :  Should there be a world government ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – it will help in eliminating tension among the nations.

(b) No – then only the developed countries will dominate in the government.

Q.4. STATEMENT :  Should the political parties be banned ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – it is necessary to teach a lesson to the politicians.

(b) No – it will lead to an end of democracy.

5. STATEMENT :  Should the health care service be nationalized ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – it has been done else where also.

(b) No – the quality of health care service will deteriorate.

Q.6. STATEMENT :  Should the institution of marriages be abolished ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – it is already showing cracks.

(b) No – it is necessary for the survival of society.

Q.7. STATEMENT :  Should election expenses to Central and State legislatures be met by the government?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – it will put an end to political corruption.

(b) No – it is not done in any country.

Q.8. STATEMENT :  Should film magazines be banned ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – they indulge only in gossip which has a bad influence on the young.

(b) No – Why should they be banned ?

Q.9. STATEMENT :   Should strikes in Government offices be banned ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – the general public is definitely of that opinion.

(b) No – it is against the democratic rights of the public.

Q.10. STATEMENT :  Should large scale industries be permitted to expand ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Advanced countries have done so.

(b) No – They smother small scale industries which alone can create employment in  the rural areas.

Q.11. STATEMENT :  Should kissing and nudity be shown in Indian films?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – It is being shown all over the world.

(b) No – It will damage the moral fiber of the Indian society.

Q.12. STATEMENT :  Should family planning be made compulsory in India.

ARGUMENTS :

(a)  Yes – Though India is progressing in industrial and economic growth yet it can’t prosper because of disproportionate growth in population.

– people are prone to use their freedom to condemn and revolt against any compulsion.

Q.13. STATEMENT :  Should agricultural sector be mechanized ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Villages will look neat and clean.

(b) No – It should not.

Q.14. STATEMENT :  Should teachers boycott the examinations for the fulfillment of their demands ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a)  Yes – Since all constitutional means of getting their justifiable demands have been failed.

(b) No – Examination work is the part and parcel of their job.

Q.15. STATEMENT :  Should objective type tests be banned from selection procedure ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a)  Yes – It does not test student’s capacity for integration and organization of  knowledge.

(b)  No – Scoring in objective type test is easy.

Q.16. STATEMENT :  Should India go for nuclear weapons ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Defense capability is greatest when you have nuclear weapons.

(b) No – It will start dangerous arms race in this part of the world.

Q.17. STATEMENT :  Should family planning be made compulsory in India ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Looking to the miserable conditions in India there is no other go.

(b) No – In India there are people of various religions and family planning is against the tenets of some of the religions.

Q.18. STATEMENT :  Should correspondence courses at University level in India be discontinued ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Only interaction between teachers  and  students while learning helps total development of personality at the University level.

(b) No – Such a step of discontinuation is the craze of the elite who have no knowledge  of what is meant by poverty.

Q.19. STATEMENT :  Should religion be taught in our schools ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Do the parents not wish to develop their wards into nature individuals ?

(b) No – How can one dream of such a step when we want the young generation to  fulfill its role in the twenty first century ?

Q.20. STATEMENT :  Should private sector be permitted to operate telephone services ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – They are operated in advanced western countries.

(b) No – It is risky to put them in private hands.

Q.21. STATEMENT :  Should India go in for computerization in industry.

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – It will bring precision, refinement and speed in industrial production.

(b) No – It will aggravate the growing unemployment in India.

Q.22. STATEMENT :  Should articles of only deserving authors be allowed to be published ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – It will save a lot of paper which is in short supply.

(b) No – It is not possible to draw a line between the deserving and the undeserving.

Q.23. STATEMENT :  Should scouts and guides training be made compulsory in schools ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – This training will develop discipline among students.

(b) No – It will bring regimentation in education.

Q.24. STATEMENT :  Should India go in computerization in industry ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a)  Yes – When advanced countries are introducing computers in various areas, how can India afford to lag behind ?

(b)  No – Computerization demands a lot of money. We should not waste money on  it.

Q.25. STATEMENT :  Should political parties be banned from taking out processions on the road ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – This creates a great deal of inconvenience to the commuters.

(b) No – Citizens have right to demonstrate their protests by taking out processions.

Q.26. STATEMENT :  Should parliament elections be held after every 10 years ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – This will save a lot of money in every alternate five year plan.

(b) No -The political party in power for a term will exploit the time in their favor.

Q.27. STATEMENT :  Should there be a woman President in India ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Then only the suffering of women will be stopped.

(b) No – A Woman is not capable of ruling a vast country like India.

Q.28. STATEMENT :  Should India go in for making nuclear war heads ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Because Pakistan also is doing the same.

(b) No – This will lead to nuclear war in the continent.

Q.29. STATEMENT :  Should family planning be forcibly implemented in our country ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Otherwise the country’s population will become extremely  unmanageable in  the next few years.

(b) No – Instead of forced implementation, people should be educated about its        pros and cons.

Q.30. STATEMENT :  Should curative aspect of leprosy be given sufficient publicity ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Such publicity is being given all over the world.

(b) No – We should spend money on finding out a cure for leprosy rather than        spending money on publicity.

Q.31. STATEMENT :  Should the caste system in India be abolished ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – It will enable us to treat everyone without any discrimination.

(b) No – The abolition will preclude the low caste people from getting much          needed  economic benefits.

Q.32. STATEMENT :  Should there be a complete ban on nuclear tests ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Is there any other way out ?

(b) No – Is will preclude very effective use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.

Q.33. STATEMENT :  Should teachers be evaluated by the students ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Teachers performance will improve if they received data from         beneficiaries.

(b) No – Students are not mature enough to evaluate the teachers’ performance.

Q.34. STATEMENT :  Should military training be made compulsory in India ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – If need arises, everybody can defend the country effectively.

(b) No -This will lead to civil disobedience .

Q.35. STATEMENT :  Should promotion in an organization be given only according to the   performance  appraisal ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – Employees will put their best efforts to perform effectively.

(b) No – The bias in appraising performance will be detrimental to the deserving         candidates.

Q.36. STATEMENT :  Should the system of paying bonus in industries be banned ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – At least one cause of industrial disputes will disappear.

(b) No – This will hinder production growth.

Q.37. STATEMENT :  Should strikes in Government offices be banned ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – The general public is definitely of that opinion.

(b) No – It is against the democratic rights of the public.

Q.38. STATEMENT :  Should film-censorship be abolished ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – What right does the government have to control even films ?

(b) No – Present trend of abolishing established things should be sternly opposed.

Q.39. STATEMENT :  Should divorce be made easy by law in India ?

ARGUMENTS :

(a) Yes – We should not be afraid of the charge of imitating Western countries.

(b) No – Can we not get away from the habit of imitating Western countries after          enjoying independence for thirty years ?

SET : A – 4

NOTE:   An argument would be forceful if :

(i) It is not an assumption.

(ii) It is in conformity with the prevailing ideal and truth.

(iii) It is specific (and not generalized).

(iv) It is not ambiguous .

(v) It is not the implication of the statement which serves as an argument.

1.   E

2.   D

3.   B.     First argument is an assumption.

4.   B.     First argument is senseless.

5.   E.

6.   B.

7.   A.

8.   A.    Argument (b) is no reason.

9.   B.    First argument is irrelevant.

10. B.   We can’t do anything simply because others have done so.

11.  B.  We can’t follow others blindly.

12.  A.  Compulsory Family Planning is a must to check population growth.

13.  A.   Argument (a) justifies the mechanization of agricultural sector.

14.  A.   Strike is the only method to get demands fulfilled when all other constitutional methods fail.

15.  C.   Both the arguments are strong.

16.   C.

17.   E.  Both the arguments are irrelevant.

18.   B.  Correspondence course should continue as they enable the poor to acquire qualifications.

19.   D.  Both the arguments are irrelevant.

20.   E.

21.   B.

22.   B.    It is very difficult to distinguish between the deserving and the non-deserving. Argument  (a) is  no reason.

23.    A.

24.    E.   Neither of the arguments justify or reject computerization in industry.

25.    C.

26.    B.

27.    E.

28.    B.

29.    B.    Use of force is undemocratic.

30.    E.    Argument (b) is irrelevant.

31.    C.    Though the abolition of caste system is a must for ending discrimination, yet, being a creation of  society, it can’t be abolished.

32.     B.   A ban on nuclear tests will deprive us of the nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.

33.     A.

34.     E.

35.     E.

36.     B.

37.     B.   Argument (a) is irrelevant.

38.     D.

39.     D.

## PRACTICE EXERCISES TEST OF REASONING

### PRACTICE EXERCISE SET : 1

Q.1.  In the following sequence of names, R stands for Ramesh, Y stands for Yogesh, G stands for Govind,  B for Bobby and W for Woman. If the sequence continued which name will come next ?

B B R B R W B R W G B R W G Y B R B R W B R W

A.  Ramesh         B.  Yogesh           C.  Govind           D.  Bobby             E. Woman

Q.2.   House is related to window in the same way as Man is related to

A.  Speech            B.  Universe           C.  Brain           D.  Emotion            E.  Eyes

Q.3.   How many numbers will be left out of the numbers from 1 to 60, if all numbers which are exactly divisible by 6 and also have 6 as one of the digits are removed ?

A. 46        B.  57       C. 49        D. 3         E. 54

Q.4.   Pavan is not taller than Raju. Suresh is taller than Mahesh. Deepak is not as tall as Suresh but is taller than Raju. Mahesh is not as tall as Raju. Who is the tallest ?

A.  Raju                 B.  Suresh            C. Deepak           D. Cannot be determined            E. None of these.

Q.5.   Education is related to Teacher in the same way as Treatment is related to :

A. Nurse          B. Medicine          C. Chemist             D. Clinic                                E. Doctor

Q.6.  Clock is related to Time in the same way as Lamp is related to :

A.  Light               B.  Room              C.  Bulb                 D.  Glow               E.  Darkness

Q.7.   Chandan ranks twentieth in a class of forty seven. What is his rank from the last ?

A.  17       B.  27          C.  26              D.  25          E.  28

Q.8.   In a certain code NATION is written as OPJUBO. How is SISTER written in that code ?

A.  SJTFUS           B.  STJROF           C.   SFUTJT           D.   SFUJTT          E.   TJTUFS

Q.9.   Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does  not belong to that group ?

A.  Book               B.  Magazine           C.  Newspaper             D.  Journal           E.  Comic

Q.10.   Well is related to Depth in the same way as Word is related to :

A. Language       B. Literature       C. Meaning          D. Writing           E. Alphabet

Q.11.  If the following words were arranged in an alphabetical order, which will appear in the middle ?

A. Instability       B.  Instalment       C.  Institution        D.  Institute       E.  Instruction

Q.12.   Which letter of the following alphabet is the fifth letter to the right of the letter which is thirteenth  from the left ?

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A.  I        B.  M          C.  R         D.  N        E.  Q

Q.13.   In a certain code HEIGHT is written as KFLHKU. How is SAMPLE written in that code ?

A.   VBPOOF       B.  VBPQOF         C.  VPBOQF         D.  VBPSOE         E.  VBPSOF

Q.14.   How many 6’s are there in the following sequence which are immediately preceded by 4 but not  immediately followed by 2 ?

4 6 3 4 6 2 5 8 4 6 8 3 6 3 2 6 4 3 4 6 7 6 3 4 6 2

A.  1       B.  2       C.  3        D.  4        E.  More than 4

Q.15.   Death is related to Birth in the same way as Reason is related to –

A. Criticism     B. Comment      C. Feeling       D. Logic       E. Cause

Q.16.    If air is called water, water is called wind, wind is called light, light is called rain and rain is called  air, which of the following do birds fly in ?

A.  Air       B.  Water    C.  Wind      D.  Light     E. Rain

Q.17.   Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one does not  belong to that group ?

A.  Silver        B.  Gold        C.  Bronze        D.   Metal        E.  Zinc

Q.18.   Which letter should be in place of * in the following series ?

E  H  L  O  S  *  Z

A.   U         B.    W         C.   Y         D.    V         E.   None of these.

Q.19.   Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does  not belong to that group ?

A.  Sword         B.  Knife        C. Danger        D.  Sickle        E.  Needle

Q.20.   Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does  not belong to that group ?

A.  Summary       B.  Digest       C.  Gist          D.  Substance         E.  Observation

Q. 21 – 25.    Read the following information and answer the questions given below it.

There are six persons A, B, C, D, E and F attending a party. In this group, there are three executives working in the same factory, a journalist and a teacher. There are two married ladies in the group. No man is either a journalist or a teacher. E is a retired man who stays with his married son C. Among the three executives, husband of D earns more salary than F who in turn gets more salary than B. Sister of F earns less than her husband B but more than D.

Q.21.   Which of the following is the pair of ladies ?

A.    A  B        B.  B  C        C.    C  D         D.   E  D         E.   A  D

Q.22.   Who is the husband of D ?

A.  F          B.  E          C.   C        D.  B         E.  None of these

Q.23.   Who among the following earns the lowest ?

A.   D            B.   B         C.   A         D.   F          E.   C

Q.24.   Who is the unmarried executive in the group ?

A.   E           B.   A         C.    C        D.   F         E.    Cannot be determined.

Q.25.   Who is the journalist ?

A.    A            B.     D           C.    F            D.    E         E.   Cannot be determined

Q. 26 – 30           In each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from common known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

(A)  if only conclusion I follows

(B)  if only conclusion II follows

(C)  if either I or II follows

(D)  if neither I nor II follows

(E)  if both I and II follows

Q.26.     STATEMENT : Some birds are fishes. No fish can walk.

CONCLUSIONS : I. Some birds cannot walk.

II. Some birds can walk.

Q.27.     STATEMENT : All cars are bicycles. All aero planes are bicycles.

CONCLUSIONS :  I. All cars are aero planes.

II. Some cars are aero planes.

Q.28.     STATEMENT : All cups are chalks. All chalks are dusters.

CONCLUSIONS : I. All dusters are cups.

II. All cups are dusters.

Q.29.     STATEMENT : Some fruits are pens. Some pens are rats.

CONCLUSIONS : I. Some fruits are rats.

II. All fruits are rats.

Q.30.     STATEMENT : Some doors are shoes. All shoes are windows.

CONCLUSIONS : I. Some windows are shoes.

II. Some doors are windows.

CONCLUSIONS : I. Some windows are shoes.

II. Some doors are windows.

Q. 31 – 35.            In each question given below is a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

(A) if assumption (I) is implicit

(B) if assumption (II) is implicit

(C) if either (I) or (II) is implicit

(D) if neither (I) nor (II) is implicit

(E) if both (I) and (II) are implicit

Q.31.     STATEMENT : What a foot I am to rely on trickster like Suman.

ASSUMPTIONS : I. Suman is unreliable.

II. I am a fool.

Q.32.     STATEMENT : What a fool I am to rely on trickster like Suman.

ASSUMPTIONS : I. Tricksters are not reliable.

II. It is foolish to rely on a trickster.

Q.33.     STATEMENT : “If you are beautiful, we will catch your beauty. If you are not, we will make you beautiful” – An advertisement of a photo studio.

ASSUMPTIONS : I. “How to look beautiful ?”, is a problem of youngsters.

II. Nobody desires to be beautiful.

Q.34.     STATEMENT : “If you are beautiful, we will catch your beauty. If you are not, we will make you beautiful” – An advertisement of a photo studio.

ASSUMPTIONS : I. A photograph can be beautiful even if a person is not.

II. People like to be considered beautiful.

Q.35.     STATEMENT : The new education policy envisages major modifications in the education system.

ASSUMPTIONS : I. Present education system is inconsistent with national needs.

II. Present education system needs change.

Q. 36-40.       In making decisions about important questions it is desirable to be able to distinguish between ‘strong’ arguments and ‘weak’ arguments so far as they relate to the questions. ‘Strong’ arguments must be related to the question. ‘Weak’ arguments may not be directly related to the questions and may be of minor importance or may be related to the trivial aspect of the question.

Each question below is followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the given arguments is a ‘strong’ argument and which is a ‘weak’ argument.

(A) if only argument (I) is strong

(B) if only argument (II) is strong

(C) if either (I) or (II) is strong

(D) if neither (I) nor (II) is strong

(E) if both (I) and (II) are strong

Q.36.   Should strikes in the field of education be banned ?

ARGUMENTS : I. Yes, it is against professional ethics.

II. Yes, it affects the students adversely.

Q.37.   Should higher education be restricted only to the most deserving ones ?

ARGUMENTS : I. No, it is against the principle of democracy.

II. Yes, only deserving people are entitled to this luxury.

Q.38.   Should military service be made compulsory in our country ?

ARGUMENTS : I. No, it is against the policy of non-violence.

II. Yes, every citizen should protect his country.

Q.39.   Should young entrepreneurs be encouraged ?

ARGUMENTS : I. Yes, that will help in industrial development of the country.

II. Yes, that will reduce the burden on the employment market.

Q.40.    Should India manufacture computers ?

ARGUMENTS : I. Yes, why not ?

II. No, we do not have the technical expertise.

Q. 41 – 45.            Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark answer (A) if you think the inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e. it properly follows from the statement of facts given.

Mark answer (B) if you think the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’, in the light of the facts given. Mark answer (C) if you think the data are inadequate, i.e. from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.

Mark answer (D) if you think the inference is ‘probably false’ though not ‘definitely false’ in the light of the facts given. Mark answer (E) if you think the inference is ‘definitely false’, i.e. it contradicts the given facts.

It is thought by scientists that the banana first grew in Southern Asia and that through many centuries it spread in almost all tropical regions. The remarkable food value of bananas has been recognized only recently.

When they are completely ripe or cooked, few foods are more digestible and it has been discovered that they are also useful in treating certain diseases.

Q.41. Only cooking makes banana easy to digest.

Q.42. Earlier, banana was not known for its nutritive value.

Q.43. Banana grows only in tropical regions.

Q.44. Banana has a medicinal quality also.

Q.45. Banana is the cheapest food available.

Q. 46 – 50.           In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true and consider both the conclusions together, then decide which of the two given conclusions logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

Give Answer (A) if only conclusion (I) follows ; (B) if only conclusion (II) follows ; (C) if either (I) or (II) follows ; (D) if neither (I) nor (II) follows, and (E) if both (I) and (II) follow.

Q.46.     STATEMENT : In an encounter, ten soldiers were killed and one injured seriously.

CONCLUSIONS : I. The attack was unexpected.

II. The enemy outnumbered the soldiers.

Q.47.     STATEMENT : Their house is on the highway with a heavy traffic and they are facing a problem  of noise pollution.

CONCLUSIONS : I. People should build their houses away from highway.

II. Traffic creates problems of environment pollution.

Q.48.     STATEMENT : No new taxes are proposed in the revised budget.

CONCLUSIONS : I. The country has a balanced economy.

II. The country has a surplus.

Q.49.     STATEMENT : Although he reported that his home was burgled at night, police did not take necessary steps immediately to investigate the crime.

CONCLUSIONS : I. Police are lazy.

II. Police are cautions.

Q.50.     STATEMENT : In the exodus after the fire broke out, a child was found missing and the mother  frantically searching for him.

CONCLUSIONS : I. The child is dead

II. The child is alive.

### PRACTICE EXERCISE SET : 2

Q.1.  If (A) ‘S + K’ means ‘S’ is the sister of ‘K’ ; (B) ‘S  k’ means ‘S’ is the father of ‘K’ ; (C) ‘S x K’ means ‘S’ is the brother of ‘K’ ; which of the following means ‘P’ is the aunt of ‘D’ ?

A.  P  M + D                                       B.  P  M x D                                        C.  P + M  D

D.  P x M  D                                       E.  None, as there is no symbol for aunt.

Q.2.  Which of the statements (A), (B) and (C) in Q.1 is superfluous ?

A. A        B. B        C.  C       D.  B or C        E.  None

Q.3.  Reverse the digits of each of the following numbers and arrange them in descending order. Which of  the following will be the middle digit of the second highest number ?

739 279 359 189 549

A. 3        B. 7         C. 5         D. 8        E. None of these.

Q.4.  Five boys participated in an elocution competition

(a)  Aloke ranked higher than Suresh      (b)  Suresh ranked higher than Prakash

(c)  Aloke ranged lower than Nikhil           (d)  Kabir ranked between Aloke and Suresh

Who ranked the highest ?

A. Suresh             B.  Prakash          C.  Aloke                D. Nikhil             E. Kabir

Q.5. Which of the statements (a), (b), (c) and (d) in Q.4 is superfluous ?

A. (a)     B. (b)     C. (c)      D. (d)     E.  None of these

Q.6.  In a certain code ‘2 4 7’ means beautiful white rose, ‘6 5 2’ means beautiful green bottle and ‘4 2 3’ means beautiful yellow rose. Which digit in that code means ‘Yellow’ ?

A. 2        B. 4         C. 7         D. 5        E. 3

Q.7.  Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does  not belong to that group ?

A. Deer                 B.  Jackal              C.  Leopard         D.  Lion                E. Tiger

Q.8.  If it is possible to make a number which is a perfect square of a two digit even number with the second, fifth and sixth digits of the number 4 6 7 8 9 1 5 3, which of the following will be the first digit  of that three digit number ? If no such number can be made, mark E as answer.

A.  9                     B.  6                       C.  1                          D. 8                      E. Three is no such number

Q.9.  Jyoti remembers that her brother’s birthday was after the 17th but before 21st February, whereas  her brother remembers that his birthday was after the 19th but before 24th February. On which day was her brother’s birthday ?

A. 18th February        B. 19th February        C. 20th February         D. 21st February          E. 22nd February

Q.10.  If the following series of numbers is written in the reverse order, which number will be seventh to the right of the fourth number from your left ?

1 8 3 9 7 4 10 6 2 11 13 5 14 16

A. 9        B. 13      C. 8        D. 3       E. 11

Q.11.  Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group ?

A. Cup     B. Tumbler    C. Jug     D. Mug     E. Saucer

Q.12.  If means  book is related to library then fish is related to  ?

A.  Food         B.  Vegetable           C. Sting                    D.  air      E. None of these

Q.13.  Carpenter is related to Furniture in the way as Cobbler is related to ?

A. Shoe                                B. Chappal           C. Footwear            D. Leather             E. Chair

Q.14.  In a certain code language (A) ‘lim tok pur’ means ‘sour red apples’ ; (B) ‘tok tuk pa’ means ‘apple is  sweet’, and (C) ‘top tok pa mob’ means ‘Ram is eating apple’ which word in that language means   ‘sweet’ ?

A. lim                     B. tok                    C. tuk                    D. pa                      E. top

Q.15.  Which of the statements A, B and C in Q.14 is superfluous ?

A.  A          B.  B           C.  C        D. A or B          E.  None

Q.16.  Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group ?

A. Bald                  B. Lame                                C. Deaf                                 D. Dumb              E. Poor

Q.17.  In the following sequence of numbers count each 3 which is preceded by 7 but not immediately  followed by 9. How many such 3’s are there ?

3 4 7 3 9 5 2 7 3 8 3 4 2 7 3 1 9 7 3 7 4 1 3

A. One                  B. Two                  C. Three               D. Four                 E. More than four

Q.18.  If dust is called air, air is called fire, fire is called water, water is called color, color is called rain and rain is called dust, where do fish live ?

A. Dust         B. Water        C. Fire          D.    Color         E. Rain

Q.19.  Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does  not belong to that group ?

A. Chair                                B. Bench              C. Sofa                  D. Table                E. stool

Q.20.  Tree is related to sapling in the same way as woman is related to :

A. Offspring      B. father                       C.  boy        D. flower         E. girl

Q.21.  Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group ?

A. Crow              B. Parrot              C. Koel                  D. Ostrich            E. Sparrow

Q.22.  In a row of children, Preeti is seventh from the left and Bhakti is fourth from the right. When Preeti  and Bhakti exchange positions, Preeti will be fifteenth from the left. Which will be Bhakti’s position  from the right ?

A. Fourth         B. Eight          C. Eleventh     D. Twelfth          E. Fifteenth

Q.23. Vocalist is related to song in the same way as player is related to

A. Game              B. Victory             C. Match         D. Practice               E. Team

Q.24.  Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group ?

A. Silver          B. Wealth               C. Gold           D. Diamond                   E. Sapphire

Q.25.  Geeta walked towards a temple which is in front of her to the north. When the temple was 90 meters away from her she turned to the left and collected a message from Vijay’s house, which  was  50 meters away in that direction and walked towards the west for 100 meters and turned to her  right and walked 90 meters. How many meters was she from the temple ?

A. 0                        B. 50                     C. 90                       D. 150                   E. None of these

Q.26.  If the first and the second digits in the number 5 7 1 2 4 8 9, 3 were interchanged, similarly the   third and the fourth, and the fifth and the sixth and so on, which digit will be the fourth counting   to your left ?

A. 4                        B. 8                         C. 2                         D. 1                        E. None of these

Q.27.  Accommodation is related to rent in the same way as journey is related to

A. Language       B. Expense          C. Tax                    D.  Octroi             E. Fare

Q.28.  Leela, who is Sohan’s daughter, says to Latika, “ Your mother Alka is the younger sister of my father who is the third child of Gajanan”. What is the relation of Gajanan to Latika ?

A. Father             B. Uncle               C. Grandfather                  D. Father-in-law               E. Name of these

Q. 29 – 34.           All the six members of a family A, B, C, D, E, and F are traveling together. B is the son of C but C is not the mother of B. A and C are a married couple. E is the brother of C, D is the daughter of A, F is the brother of B.

Q.29. How many male members are there in the family ?

A. 5        B. 4         C. 3         D. 2        E. None of these

Q.30.  Who is the mother of B ?

A. D        B. E         C. F         D. A        E. None of these

Q.31. How many children does A have ?

A. One            B. Two                  C. Three             D. Four               E. None of these

Q.32. Who is the wife of E ?

A. A        B. B        C. F         D. Cannot be determined            E. None of these

Q.34. How is E related to D ?

A. Father             B. Brother           C. Uncle               D. Cannot be determined            E. None of these

Q. 35 – 39.           In each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the two given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two statements disregarding commonly known facts.

A. if only conclusion (I) follows

B. if only conclusion (II) follows

C. if either (I) or (II) follows

D. if neither (I) nor (II) follows

E.  if both (I) and (II) follows

Q.35.     STATEMENT : All coats are bags. Some bags are toys.

CONCLUSIONS : I. Some bags are coats.

II. Some toys are coats.

Q.36.     STATEMENT : Some kites are horses. All horses are dogs.

CONCLUSIONS : I. All dogs are horses.

II. Some dogs are horses.

Q.37.     STATEMENT : All books are chairs. All chairs are pens.

CONCLUSIONS : I. All books are pens.

II. Some pens are books.

CONCLUSIONS : I. No poet is wise.

Q.39.     STATEMENT : Some caps are tables. Some tables are chairs.

CONCLUSIONS : I. Some caps are chairs.

II. Some chairs are caps.

Q. 40 – 44.           In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to be able to distinguish between strong arguments and weak arguments so far as they relate to the questions. Strong arguments must be both important and directly related to the question. Weak arguments may not be directly related to the question and may be of minor importance or may be related to the trivial aspect of the question .

Each question below is followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a strong argument and which is a weak argument.

A. if only argument (I) is strong

B. if only argument (II) is strong

C. if either (I) or (II) is strong

D. if neither (I) nor (II) is strong

E. if both (I) and (II) are strong

Q.40.  Should euthanasia, i.e. Killing be allowed ?

ARGUMENTS

I. Yes. There is no point in keeping a person alive when there is no hope of active life for him.

II. No. According to the laws of the country, nobody has the right to kill a person.

Q.41. Should academicians be debarred from joining active politics in India ?

ARGUMENTS

I. Yes. They are not good at politics.

II. No. This is against the Rights of a citizen in a democratic country like India.

Q.42. Should there be only one university throughout India ?

ARGUMENTS

I. Yes. This is the only way to bring about uniformity in the educational standards.

II. No. This is administratively impossible.

Q.43.  Should state lotteries be stopped ?

ARGUMENTS

I. Yes. Government should not promote gambling habits.

II. No. Government will lose a large amount of revenue.

Q.44.  Should telecasting feature films be stopped.

ARGUMENTS

I. Yes. Young children are misguided by the feature films.

II. No. This is the only way to educate the masses.

Q. 45 – 50.            Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences numbered from 45 to 50 which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

A. if you think the inference is definitely true, i.e. it properly follows from the statement of facts given.

B. the inference is probably true though not definitely true, in the light of the facts.

C. the data are inadequate i.e. from the facts given, you cannot say whether the inference is likely to  be true or false.

D. the inference is probably false, though not definitely false in the light of the facts given.

E. the inference is definitely false, i.e., it contradicts the given facts.

Primary education in Bihar is in a poor shape. Pupils in over 50 percent of the schools read in the open throughout the year. Over six million children born to lower income group parents remain illiterate. Not even one percent of the 63,000 primary schools have facilities of furniture, toilet, drinking water and games. 3,113 new teachers have been appointed in the current financial year out of which 2,747 are woman. Now each of the 13,270 primary schools have at least two teachers.

Q.45. 630 primary schools in Bihar have all the facilities like furniture toilet, drinking water, games.

Q.46.  In Bihar, 90 percent of the primary teachers are women.

Q.47. In Bihar, 50 percent of the children are illiterate.

Q.48. A large number of primary schools in Bihar are one-teacher schools.

Q.49. There are six million parents belonging to lower income groups in Bihar.

Q.50. Classrooms of most of the primary schools in Bihar are inadequate.

Q. 51 – 55.           In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true and consider both the conclusions together, then decide which of the two given conclusions logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

A. if only conclusion (I) follows

B. if only conclusion (II) follows

C. if either (I) or (II) follows

D. if neither (I) nor (II) follows

E. if both (I) and (II) follows

Q.51.     STATEMENT : Sealed tenders are invited from competent contractors experienced in executing  construction jobs.

CONCLUSIONS :

I. Tenders are invited only from experienced contractors.

II. It is difficult to find competent tenders in construction jobs.

Q.52.     STATEMENT : Candidates should be young, energetic and dynamic in the age group of 27 to 32  years.

CONCLUSIONS :

I. Persons below 27 years are not energetic.

II. Persons above 32 years are not young.

Q.53.     STATEMENT : The distance of 900 km by road between Bombay and Jafrabad will be reduced to 280 km by sea. This will lead to a saving of Rs.7.92 corers per annum on fuel.

CONCLUSIONS :

I. Transportation by sea is cheaper than that by road.

II. Fuel must be saved to the greatest extent.

Q.54.     STATEMENT: Despite the average 15 percent hike in steel prices announced recently by the government of India, Steel Authority of India, a major public sector enterprise, is likely to incur a loss of about Rs.350 crores during the current year.

CONCLUSIONS :

I. Steel Authority of India desired a price hike of more than 15 percent.

II. Government of India controls Steel Authority of India.

Q.55.     STATEMENT : Any young man who makes dowry a condition for marriage discredits himself and dishonors womanhood.

CONCLUSIONS  :

I. Those who take dowry in marriage should be condemned by society.

II. Those who do not take dowry in marriage respect womanhood.

Q. 56 – 60.           In each question below is given a statement followed by two as assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

A. if only assumption (I) is implicit

B. if only assumption (II) is implicit

C. if either (I) or (II) is implicit

D. if neither (I) nor (II) is implicit

E. if both (I) and (II) are implicit

Q.56.     STATEMENT : The Finance Minister called upon the officers of the LIC, their field staff and the insurance agents to make insurance business popular, particularly in rural and      semi-urban areas.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I. The officers and agents of LIC are capable of making insurance business popular.

II. The officers and agents of LIC have not made concerted efforts to popularize Insurance business.

Q.57.      STATEMENT : One of the opposition leaders said that the time had come for like – minded opposition parties to unite and dislodge the corrupt government.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I.  Like-minded opposition parties should unite only when they have to dislodge  a corrupt government.

II. Opposition parties are not corrupt.

Q.58.     STATEMENT : Over 1.4 lakh quintals of cotton has been procured in the state under Cotton Procurement Scheme, a press note said on Wednesday.

ASSUMPTIONS :
I.  Cotton Procurement Scheme is successful.

II. No Cotton Procurement should be done now.

Q.59.     STATEMENT : ‘Ensure a good night’s sleep for your family with safe and effective ‘X’ mosquito  coil’ – an advertisement.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I. ‘X’ mosquito coil is better than any other mosquito coil.

II. A good night’s sleep is desirable.

Q.60.     STATEMENT: The Finance Minister called upon the Officers of the LIC, their file staff and insurance agents to make insurance business popular, particularly in rural and semi-urban areas.

ASSUMPTIONS :

I. In general, the insurance business is not popular in the public.

II. People in rural and semi urban areas are against insurance.

1. (C)               2. (E)                3. (A)              4. (D)               5. (E)               6. (A)

7. (E)               8. (C)               9. (E)               10.(C)              11.(D)              12.(C)

13. (D)            14.(C)               15.(D)              16.(B)              17.(C)              18.(D)

19.(E)              20.(E)            21.(E)               22.(C)              23.(A)              24.(D)

25. (E)             26.(E)              27.(D)             28.(B)               29. (D)             30.(E)

31. (E)             32.(E)              33.(D)              34.(E)              35.(E)              36.(B)

37. (D)             38.(B)              39. (E)             40.(D)              41.(A)              42.(A)

43. (A)             44.(A)              45.(C)              46.(A)              47.(A)              48(D)

49.(A)              50.(C)

1.(C)                2.(C)                3. (E)              4. (D)               5.(E)                6.(E)         7.(A)

8. (C)               9. (C)              10.(A)              11.(E)              12.(E)              13.(C)       14.(C)

15.(A)              16.(E)              17.(C)              18.(D)              19.(D)              20.(E)       21.(D)

22.(D)              23.(A)              24.(B               25. (D)             26.(D)              27.(E)      28.(C)

29.(B)              30.(D)              31. (C)             32.(E)              33.(B)              34.(C)      35.(E)

36.(B)              37.(E)              38.(A)              39.(D)              40.(D)              41.(D)       42.(B)

43. (D)             44.(D)              45.(E)              46.(C)              47. (C)             48.(A)       49.(A)

50.(B)              51.(A)              52.(D)              53. (B)             54.(E)              55.(D)     56.(A)

57. (B)             58.(D)              59. (E)             60.(A)